The results reveal that women's rising representation in law firms leads to enhanced communication through informational and emotional support, benefiting both men and women lawyers. Bourdieu considers the ways that cultural attitudes and disposi- tions-cultural capital-can facilitate and nurture the formation of client networks. The legal profession has diversified greatly over the past few decades, but the consequences of this increasing diversity are ambiguous. Job satisfaction is salient to trajectories of depressive symptoms, with pronounced effects during the early career years. The first path is through gender differences in occupational power, which lead to differential despondency.
Author: Hagan, John; Kay, Fiona Language: English Copyright: 1995. This suggests that men display a com- mitment to firm culture simply by having children, whereas women are expected to demonstrate commitment by returning to practice soon after childbirth and maintain- ing their docketed hours. Human capital theory, which offers one view of gender inequality in legal practice, concentrates on the supply side of the labor process. In 1999 John Hagan will be the John D. A measure of social capital not included in our analysis is that of gender composition within the law firm. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Law Society of Upper Canada.
He is the author of Northern Passage: American Vietnam War Resisters in Canada Harvard University Press, 2001 , which received the Albert Reiss Distinguished Scholarship Award from the Crime, Law and Deviance Section of the American Sociological Association, and Justice in the Balkans: Prosecuting War Crimes at The Hague Tribunal University of Chicago Press, 2003. Ceiling Effects in Practice; 3. The third path is through feelings of despondency that result from concerns about the career consequences of having children. Bourdieu argues that organizations such as law firms increasingly reject direct mecha- nisms of reproduction e. Looking at the careers of both men and women and using information culled from two surveys that include nearly two thousand lawyers, this revealing book traces occupational and personal experiences and analyzes these patterns in terms of work and gender. Women are recent entrants to this culture. The paradoxical work satisfaction reported by women and men lawyers obscures a more notable difference in their depressed or despondent feelings.
These departures appear to be largely the consequence of organizational structures and a practice culture that remain resistant to flexible schedules, time gaps between jobs, and parental and other leaves. Because more women than men leave practice Kay 1997 , the exclusion of lawyers no longer in practice should reduce the estimated impact of gender. Yet, the contemporary picture of the legal profession also reveals that women are having an important impact on the profession of law in Canada by introducing policy reforms aimed at creating a more humane legal profession. Our analysis of developmental practices within law firms raises important implications for law firm policies related to the retention and promotion of minorities. Menkel-Meadow 1989 raises this issue when she asks whether women will change law, or whether law will change women.
Measures of incorpo- rated cultural capital include family occupa- tional backgroind, ethnic-religious group membership, and legal education Table I. We apply a life course perspective and incorporate theories of work-family interface, role identity, and job-demands control. However, the introduction of social capital variables reduces the effects of nonfirm and firm dispositions by 17 and 3 1 percent, respectively. Results revealed that certain sub-scales of low self-control influenced the way street youth react to criminal events and the likelihood that they would become an offender or victim. We thank Tara Carnochan for valuable research assistance. We thank Jay Teachman for advice on a draft of this paper and on suggestions raised by four anonymous reviewers. Some youths appear to offend only briefly and then desist, while others continue offending and at a higher rate.
In this article we empirically assess the benefits of mentorship across a diverse range of extrinsic and intrinsic career rewards. Responsibility: John Hagan, Fiona Kay. Our paper moves discussion beyond the work-family debate and motherhood, to examine the broader issues of institutional constraints on careers of both men and women in law and policy initiatives to encourage retention of legal talent in private practice. It is assumed that women's investments in family inhibit their investments in education and experience, and thus render women less productive. Trust is essential to successful business relations, particularly to the efficient operation of law firms.
And second, how does mentorship shape the careers of professionals? Furthermore, more educated or ex- perienced workers are not necessarily more productive Reskin and Padavic 1994:41 , and productivity is strongly affected by the resources that employers make available to employees and the commitment employers encourage from their workers. Interpersonal ties within a law practice e. Social and cultural capital take several forms. This probably reflects the over- all privileged class and predominantly white ethnic background of this sample Neallani 1992. However, stereotypes about women's abilities to balance responsibilities at work and home hamper their upward mobility in this male-dominated field. Future research should pursue the question of whether firms with women partners promote women associates faster.
This emerges more clearly in Figure 3, in which the comparison is in terms of firm cul- ture: Only women who endorse firm culture with exceptional intensity approach men in partnership success, whereas men do about the same regardless of their disposition to- ward firm culture. A Report to the Committee on Women in the Profession, the Association of the Bar of the City of New York. New York: Russell Sage Foundation and the American Bar Foundation. Women with multiple mentors, however, report enhanced work satisfaction. Using a panel study of women and men lawyers practicing in Toronto since the mid-1980s, we find at least three causal pathways through which gender indirectly is connected to job dissatisfaction and feelings of despondency. The corre- lation between nonfirm culture professional disposition and firm culture practice dispo- sition is negative -. Office of the Comptroller of the Currency from the Civil War to World War 11.
The final component of Bourdieu's theory involves his concept of dispositions, or habi- tus-a handed-down code, cognitive style, or set of preferences. Firm size is treated as a source of reputational capital, measured by a four-cat- egory ordinal scale-firms of less than 10 lawyers, 10 to 19 lawyers comparison cat- egory , 20 to 49 lawyers, and 50 or more Marriage may represent an important form of cultural capital. Parmi les hommes, cet investissement est liÃ© inopinÃ©ment avec le fait d'avoir ou non des enfants. The issues addressed here, such as conflicts between careers and family, departures from practice, and barriers to women's promotions and earnings areof great importance to members of the profession. Mills 1966 noted long ago that elite law firms tend to exaggerate features of the cor- porations that employ them. Elles mesurent les bénéfices du mentorat au moyen des récompenses de carrière intrinsèques et extrinsèques, pour découvrir que le contexte organisationnel et les attributs individuels constituent d'importants prédicteurs de qui bénéficiera de mentorat.