Male children typically advance further in school than their female counterparts, since men are the head of the household and make financial decisions on behalf of the entire family and will benefit more from the education. These rainforests represent 82 percent of the countrys original forest cover. Traditional beliefs pervade nearly every aspect of life, even for churchgoing Christians. The entry includes total population as well as the male and female components. These Hutu militia forces soon allied with the Zairian armed forces to launch a campaign against Congolese ethnic Tutsis in eastern Zaire. The persistent elevation of mortality more than four years after the official end of the 1998—2002 war provides further evidence that recovery from conflict can take many years, especially when superimposed on decades of political and socioeconomic decline. Non-Congolese expatriates— businesspeople of higher wealth and class from West Africa, Greece, Asia, the United States, and Japan—enjoy a higher standard of living than the majority of the population.
Ethnographers, scientists, and those studying the humanities find these institutions valuable places to conduct their research. A transitional government was set up in July 2003; it held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures took place in 2006. It boasts vast deposits of industrial diamonds, , and copper; one of the largest forest reserves in Africa; and about half of the hydroelectric potential of the continent. It is a useful indicator for gauging the success of family planning programs aiming to reduce maternal mortality, increase contraceptive use — particularly among married and unmarried adolescents — delay age at first marriage, and improve the health of newborns. Allegiances to a political party or faction are usually based along ethnic and clan lines.
Proved reserves are those quantities of natural gas, which, by analysis of geological and engineering data, can be estimated with a high degree of confidence to be commercially recoverable from a given date forward, from known reservoirs and under current economic conditions. Services cover government activities, communications, transportation, finance, and all other economic activities that do not produce material goods. Referred to as Kinois, these government officials and Western businessmen are few in number. The Ponds of Kalambayi: An African Sojourn, 1990. During this conference, Africa was arbitrarily divided in ways that benefitted the European colonial powers, with no regard for existing tribal systems and linguistic groups. Language choice carries inherent political overtones.
On 6 December 2006 Joseph Kabila was sworn in as President. And, when food is available, it usually does not contain the vitamins and minerals required to help ward off disease and maintain proper health. Regions located along the Congo River were most easily accessible to outside traders. The tattered clothes of the majority of shoeless, rural and urban poor are outward signs of the poverty they endure. The index is the ratio of a the area between a country's Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to b the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. Subsistence agriculture accounts for a vast majority of the industry in the Congo.
The age structure of a population affects a nation's key socioeconomic issues. Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxi. The best method depends on your personal situation. Sure the Congo faces some basic human problem, however the way it expressed here it more than the reality. By June 2003 all foreign armies except those of Rwanda had pulled out of Congo.
For additional information, please see the entry for Population pyramid on the Definitions and Notes page under the References tab. Throughout the sixteenth century, the worldwide demand for slaves increased, triggering violence between ethnic groups as European slave traders kidnapped people and encouraged African men to capture members of other ethnic groups for money. Electrification data — collected from industry reports, national surveys, and international sources — consists of four subfields. Mangbetu-Azande hairstyles, composed of layers of braids, accentuate this elongated shape of the head and have become internationally recognized. For airports with more than one runway, only the longest runway is included according to the following five groups - 1 over 3,047 m over 10,000 ft , 2 2,438 to 3,047 m 8,000 to 10,000 ft , 3 1,524 to 2,437 m 5,000 to 8,000 ft , 4 914 to 1,523 m 3,000 to 5,000 ft , and 5 under 914 m under 3,000 ft. With the introduction of Western imports and a monetary system, life in the Congo became increasingly stratified and based upon material acquisition.
Massive strikes and retaliatory massacres helped motivate opposition groups in the extremely large and ethnically diverse country. Exports such as copper, diamonds, gold, and coffee are bound for Europe, South Africa, and Angola. Most Congolese speak several languages; it is not uncommon for someone to fluently speak four or more languages. . A statement on judicial review of legislative acts is also included for a number of countries. Congo jazz and soukous, played on a guitar, are popular varieties for such dances. Both forced labor and high taxes continued the horrors of Leopold.
Statistics vary from country to country and may include users who access the Internet at least several times a week to those who access it only once within a period of several months. Rwanda is widely suspected of funding this rebel group as well, although both Rwanda and M23 deny this. Brazzaville is also the country's capital and largest city. The few people in large cities who are salaried and are actually receiving pay also enjoy social security and pension benefits, but this does little for the vast majority of the population, which receives no support from the government. The white colonial rulers had, however, generally a condescending, patronizing attitude toward the indigenous peoples, which led to bitter resentment from both sides. Established as a Belgian colony in 1908, the then-Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. It is widely suspected that Rwanda is funding some of these rebel groups.
Progress on implementing substantive economic reforms remains slow because of political instability, bureaucratic inefficiency, corruption, and patronage, which also dampen international investment prospects. Because of the lack of civil rights and equality in the Congo, ethnic Tutsis have never had citizenship, even those born in the country. It would be difficult for any new government, given this history, to come in and change things overnight since much of the illegal activity is promoted by the rich and powerful. Since these elders are the most respected men in their community, they were An overcrowded refugee camp in Kibumba. Some families build their own ponds by diverting small rivers to an area, using bamboo for pipes. In this way, main cities, which are still under the threat of a new outbreak spreading from the lakes, would be protected.